To add a further layer of security, Solitude can be run in two modes:

  • standalone: in this case Solitude is only run with one instance and communicates to the payment providers (PayPal, Bango etc). That one instance knows everything about how to interact with the database and has the appropriate settings for communicating with those providers.
    • Requests go: client > solitude > provider.
  • proxy: in this case Solitude is run with two instances, a database server and proxy server.
    • Requests go: client > solitude database server > solitude proxy server > provider.
    • database server this can read and write to the database, the cache and so on. It cannot talk to the provider. It has no provider credentials.
    • proxy server this cannot read and write to the database, the cache and so on. It can talk to provider. It has the provider credentials.

By default solitude runs in standalone mode. Running using runserver or the wsgi/ script will run in this mode.

Running both the database and proxy server on the same instance might not give you much of an advantage. The intention is to run them in seperate servers and have appropriate security between them.

To run in proxy mode, make the following changes:

  • database server ensure you have not specified any sensitive provider settings.

    • For Bango set BANGO_PROXY to point to the proxy server referencing the path /proxy/bango for example:

      BANGO_PROXY = 'https://some.server.local/proxy/bango'
    • For payment providers using zippy, set ZIPPY_PROXY to point to the proxy server referencing the path /proxy/provider for example:

      BANGO_PROXY = 'https://some.server.local/proxy/provider'

      You should also ensure that you do not have the auth section in your ZIPPY_CONFIGURATION dictionary, since the database server will not be referencing the auth.

  • proxy server ensure you have not specified any database or cache settings, but have specified the provider settings, such as username, password, sandbox and so on.

    • For zippy, ensure that the ZIPPY_CONFIGURATION configuration has the auth dictionary and url string.

To run the proxy server, run with the environment variable:


To run as a wsgi file, just use wsgi/ and it will set this variable for you.


If the proxy encounters a response code that is not a 2xx code then it will log a warning that there might be issues for the db instance. Example:

s.proxy:ERROR Warning response status: 404

In this case it’s up to the client to deal with the issue before continuing processing. It might be acceptable for the API to return a 404 or 302 and the client knows how to deal with that.

If the client has a fatal error:

s.proxy:ERROR ConnectionError: [Errno 8] nodename nor servname provided, or not known

This will return a response of 500 to the calling library. It’s that libraries job to cope with the 500 errors. In this case the Bango client in solitude detects 500 and raises a ProxyError:

File "/Users/andy/sandboxes/solitude/lib/bango/\", line 133, in send
    raise ProxyError(msg)
        "type": "<class 'lib.bango.errors.ProxyError'>",
        "value": "Proxy returned: 500 from:"


When solitude with proxy is setup, run a test command against the service.

For Bango, from the command line, with all the solitude requirements installed:

cd samples

If you’ve got an error talking to Bango you’ll get a proxy error as outlined above.